1. What are enzymes?
Enzymes are proteins, composed of amino-acids, which are produced by all living organisms, Enzymes are responsible for a number of reactions and biological activities in plants, animals, human beings and microorganisms. Enzymes are essential for all metabolic processes and are distinguishable from other proteins because of the catalytic action


2. How do enzymes work?
Enzymes work like all catalysts by interacting with the substrates or reactants to generate an intermediate enzyme-substrated complex that lowers the activation energy for the reaction. It results in a dramatic increase in the reaction rate compared to the uncatalysed reaction.
Unlike chemical catalysts, most enzymes have an active site with specific size and form that will fit only a selective range of substrates for a specific reaction. Like chemical catalysts, enzymes are not be consumed in the reaction and do not alter the equilibrium of the reactions they catalyze.


3. Are enzymes safe?
Enzymes have been safely used for thousands of years. One of the earliest examples of industrial enzyme use was in the production of wine. Over the years, enzymes have also been used in textile& leather, detergent, food& brewing , ethanol& alcohol industries etc.
Our products are commercialized only after the safety has been fully established. In our manufacturing plants, we maintain the highest standards of quality assurance and safety.


4. Do enzymes have any threat to the environment?
Enzymes are biodegradable and enzyme waste streams have a minimal impact on the environment. The use of enzymes often leads to a significant positive impact on the environment, ranging from energy and water savings, to replacement of hash chemicals and more efficient use of raw materials.


5. What are the environmental benefits for using enzymes?
Enzymes is safe and unharmful to the enverionment without any pollution by replacing chemicals. For example:
•Replacing acids, alkalis or oxidizing agents in fabric de-sizing
•Use enzymes in the tanneries to reduce the use of sulfide
•Enzymes replace pumice stones for “stonewashing” jeans to reduce waste
•Enzymes used in animal feeds to help more complete digestion of feed
•Used in laundry products as a stain remover. This allows clothes to be washed at lower temperatures to save energy. Enzymes can be used instead of chlorine bleach for removing stains on cloth. Enzymes also reduce the surfactants level of permit the cleaning of clothes in the absence of phosphates.
•Unlike other catalysts, enzymes are very specific and will work under mild reaction conditions allowing selective reactions in the presence sensitive chemicals.
Enzymes are relatively cheap and easily obtainable in large volumes through fermentation technology.
• Enzymes contribute to improve safe conditions during production processes for workers. For example, in starch , paper and textile production processing ,less hazardous chemicals are required.


6. How are enzymes produced in a manufacturing process?
Enzymes are selected from nature and can be further enhanced by protein engineering to improve its performance in the designated application. Enzymes are expressed in carefully selected production organisms that have been optimized to efficiently convert a feed sourced into the desired enzyme product. The enzyme production takes place in a contained fermentation vessel under controlled conditions that are optimized for optimal growth of the microorganism and expression of the enzymes of interest. This is known as the fermentation process. After this fermentation process, the enzymes are isolated, and further processed for industrial use.


7. Are enzymes living organisms?
No, enzymes are biopolymers which are designed and produced by nature to catalyze chemical reactions in living cells. They are not living materials.


8. What types of enzymes are there?
Enzymes are categorized according to the compounds they act upon. Some of the most common enzymes include proteases which break down protein; cellulases which break down cellulose; lipases which split fats into glycerol and fatty acids and amylase which break down starch into simple sugars.


9. What are some examples of industries that use enzymes?
The primary use for enzymes worldwide is as the active biological component of detergents and cleaning products. Here, proteases, amylases and lipases are used to break down protein, starch and fatty stains .
Enzymes are used in the textile industry, mainly in pre-treatment and after finishing process, such as:
De-sizing removal of size. That is stiff elements of fiber. From warp threads in fabrics after weaving
Bio-polishing: a process to reduce pilling tendency and to give fabrics a smoother and glossier appearance.
Denim abrasion: small enzyme dosage can replace traditional pumice stones to be used in stonewashing of denim to achieve a worn look
Other areas in which enzymes are used extensively including the food&bakery, beer&brewery, animal feed ,fruit juice&wine, textile&leather, oil and facts and pulp and paper, industries.


10. Why is Sunson committed to biotechnology?
Biotechnology is a key technology of the 21st century. It has the potential to increase yields in agriculture, to produce high-quality food and to manufacture fine bio-chemicals in a resource-saving manner. Biotechnology is attractive in business terms and fits in with Sunson's existing areas of expertise. On this basis, Sunson wants to develop and market trend-setting products and processes.

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